Monthly Archives: January 2010

What We Can Learn from Episodic Television

(Check out my guest blog today on The World’s Strongest Librarian, a  very cool website by Josh Hanagarne, who is the world’s strongest – and tallest – librarian.)

A genius plotting technique straight out of primetime drama.

Long ago I was giving a screenwriting workshop at a facility that was also hosting a novel writing workshop in another room.  Rumor had it the instructor, a very successful mystery author you may have actually heard of, was having a little mean-spirited fun at our expense. 

Wonder if he’d still have been a smartass if someone had ever wanted to adapt one of his novels for the screen, and then told him he wouldn’t be allowed to write the screenplay – that’s how it happens, by the way – because he didn’t have the right chops.

Writing can be an elitist avocation. 

Novelists look down their noses at screenwriters, who are paid orders of magnitude more money, who, because of that fact, in turn look down their own noses at them

Published authors look down on at self-published authors.  Literary types scoff at genre writers.  Genre writers diminish authors working in genres other than their own. 

And critics who have never published anything longer than 700 words look down on all of us.

It’s all bullshit, folks.

Truth is, each corner of the storytelling world has something to offer the rest of us.  The more we know about what makes other genres and literary styles work, the better we’ll be within our own respective areas of focus.

That includes television, too. 

Especially some of the really good stuff running in primetime these days.

Watching the season premiere of Burn Notice this week (the USA Network number one rated cable drama, and my favorite program), it occurred to me that we can all take a page from the primetime TV drama book.

It’s a little kernel of pure storytelling gold that, like story structure itself, may have escaped you if you weren’t aware of it.  Once you know what it is and why it works, you’ll never not notice it again.

Best of all, you just might even use it to take your own stories to a higher level.

This spectacularly powerful storytelling technique resides at the confluence of plot and character.  At the collision of backstory with dramatic tension.  At the crossroads of sub-plot and sub-text.

And if that sounds like some advanced stuff, it absolutely is.

If you’ve wrapped your head around the basics and are looking for a little graduate level nuance to separate your story from the slush pile, pay attention.

Straight out of primetime television.  Who’d ‘a thunk it.

Foreground Plot versus Background Plot

It sounds so simple once you hear it.  But it’s precisely the thing that keeps you coming back to a successful series and its lead character – in television and in novels – week after week, season and after season.

It goes without saying that a good story – your story – has a primary plotline.  Your character has a need, faces a problem, is in quest of a solution, embarks on a journey to reach a goal.

And of course, there is opposition to that goal, some person or force that stands in their way.  Sometimes that opposition resides within the hero (internal conflict), but usually it is an external antagonistic pressure that must be conquered, provided the internal demons are conquered first.

This is storytelling 101.  Think of this storyline, the one that launches at the First Plot Point in your story, as the foreground plot.

Now for the magic ingredient, straight out of the boob tube.

As the foreground plot unfolds, it does so in relationship to a background plot.  This is a pre-existing, more personal set of problems and life-circumstances for your hero that are either dealt with simultaneously with the foreground plot, or set aside temporarily while the foreground plot is addressed.

Examples abound.

In The Good Wife, the hero’s politician husband is in prison for lying to the grand jury about his affair with a hooker.  Her teenage children are in rebellion, and she is a junior associate at a snotty law firm driven more by the politics of money than justice and client welfare.

And yet, every week, layered on top of this daunting set of circumstances and challenges, our hero is given a case to solve, an innocent to protect, a dark and shadowy icon of power to dethrone.

This foreground storyline resolves in an hour.  The background storyline remains from week to week. 

In Burn Notice, the exact same dynamic is in place.  Our hero, Michael Weston, is a spy who has been burned, tantamount to being fired and just short of being dead.  He is left with only two friends and his highly-tuned wherewithal as a lethal spy to try to discover who burned him, and why, all in quest of getting his job back.

But that’s not the foreground plot of each episode.  With that as the background plot, he takes on yet another job to defend an innocent against the forces of evil.  At the end of the hour he’s saved his client while also dealing with yet one more background blow from the unseen forces that want him to disappear.

Name a primetime drama, any drama, and you’ll find this dynamic in place.  Even the soapy ones like Grey’s Anatomy offer us a once-only 60-minute foreground plotline set against the on-going angst of the background plot.

Stories that focus on one story at the expense or omission of the other, leaving the story with a singular plot focus, come off as flat.  Stories that offer both a foreground story and a lingering background plot give the character rich motivation and lend a context of character empathy that offer a richer experience than either plotline alone.

Are you doing this in your stories?  Maybe you should.

But before you do, be careful of these seductive traps.

Sometimes a background story becomes fodder for sub-plot, but not necessarily.  It merely needs to be present, lending context.  If there is something about the background story that can be resolved within the confines of the story at hand, rather than left lingering, then it is indeed a sub-plot.

But you don’t have to resolve your background plot to make it effective.  After the hero saves the day, we might see her or him return to the lingering problem that was there before it all started, which is a great segue to a sequel.

In fact, the background story is the very essence of a series character. Think Harry Potter in his continuing quest to find his parent’s killer, which is always lurking in the background of whatever storyline resides front and center of episode in question.

Also, don’t confuse background plot with character backstory.  

Backstory is what happened in the hero’s life before the story begins, thus defining the character’s world view, fears, preferences and inner demons. 

A background plot exists both before and throughout the story in question, and calls the character to action rather than simply defining their past experiences.

Think of it this way: backstory is what happened before your story beings… background plot is what is happening to the hero before the first plot point introduces the foreground story.  It remains in play, but takes second fiddle to that foreground story until it is resolved.

 You need both.

Don’t confuse background story with sub-text

Sub-text is the landscape of thematic relevance that provides the unspoken tension and ground rules that drive the motivations and behaviors of the players.   Sub-text can arise from your background story, but it can and should be more than that.

In the great drama House, for example, the sub-text is the hero’s inner demon that prevents him from connecting to other human beings.  This is neither foreground nor background story – it’s sub-text – but it does inform and color both.

Watch and Learn

Complex as all this may sound, in execution it comes off as fluid and very natural.  The best way to wrap your head around it is to experience it.

As in, turn on the television.

Now that you know what you’re looking for, you’ll easily sense its presence the next time you pick up the remote and flip channels.  The more intimate you become with a program and its hero, the more you’ll understand that the background plot is the bedrock of the program itself.

If Castle wasn’t writing a novel based on his assigned police detective mentor, you probably wouldn’t tune in next week.  That dynamic, which fuels the escalating relationship between the hero and the ridiculously sexy Detective Beckett, is what separates this otherwise generic whodunit from all the other primetime crime shows.  Each of which, it must be noted, sports a background plot of its own.

At least, they do if they hope to get renewed.

What is your hero dealing with before, during, behind and after the foreground plot of your story?

A compelling answer to that question might just get you published.

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Turn Your Manuscript into a Visual Masterpiece

You may have noticed – I hope you have – that both of my ebooks are now dressed up with significantly upgraded covers.

When I first published these I struggled with finding a resource for designing professional and compelling covers.  There are plenty of do-it-yourself solutions out there, but almost all require high-end desktop publishing software.  So I went out-of-house without knowing what I really needed.  

The cover of my first ebook ended up looking more like a DVD case.  The next one was done quickly and ended up as a 2-D design.

That was before I found Colin Dunbar.  Or I should say, he found me.

Colin offered to upgrade my covers, and the designs you see to the right are the outcome of that offer.  In return I offered to introduce and recommend him to my readers, many of whom are interested in publishing their own ebooks.

But it gets better.  Because all Storyfix readers are interested in manuscripts, and Colin provides a valuable service there, too.  Our manuscripts need to be perfect in every possible way, including visual presentation, and a professional designer like Colin is one way to make it happen.

So please enjoy Colin’s guest post below, and, if you’re close to publishing an ebook or submitting a manuscript, check out his site (see his ad at the bottom right of this Home page).

Turn Your Manuscript into a Visual Masterpiece

A guest post by book designer Colin Dunbar

You’ve invested hours and hours in your book.  Weeks.  Months.  Maybe more than a year. 

You’ve run spell check after spell check.  Read and re-read your genius words.  Had your manuscript edited.  Your friends have read it. 

The jury is in – you’re ready.

But wait.  Are you really ready?  Maybe there’s one more base to cover.

Does your book look as professional as it reads?

Have you considered that editing is not the same thing as page design?

If you’re writing your book to make money, either as a published author or a publishing author, you need to consider these issues carefully.

Imagine thumbing through a book you’ve plucked from the shelf at a bookstore.  You notice that it lacks a compelling cover design, and when you look inside, all you see is plain text with the title and author’s name.  There are no page numbers, no table of contents, no alphabetical index.  The margins aren’t consistent, and there is no white space where there should be white space.

What would your perception of that book be?  Would you buy it?

As an author, this is your future.  Because every prospective reader, whether it’s an ebook or a published book, bases their purchase decision largely on these visual cues.

You’ve designed your story.  Now it’s time to design your product.

First impressions count.  With readers, and with publishers.

As Richard Hendel writes in On Book Design, “What the author writes in a book is not all that tells what a book is about.  The physical shape of the book, as well as its typography, also defines it.  Every choice made by a designer has some effect on the reader. The effect may be radical or subtle, but it is usually outside a reader’s ability to describe.”

Professional book design encompasses everything required to turn your book into a user-friendly reference work, or an easy-to-read fictional work.

Some elements to consider with book design are:

* Suitable headlines and sub-headings.

* Paragraph and sentence length.

* Font selection and size.

* Suitable images that support the text (non-fiction).

* Language that is easy to read.

* Layout that suits the type of book (e.g. children’s book versus business book).

* Margins, headers and spacing for total visual appeal.

Don’t leave your success to chance.

You wouldn’t arrive at a job interview or your wedding without paying special attention to how you look.  Even though that day gives way to a deeper, more rewarding experience.  You’ve put too much of yourself into that moment when it all begins.

So it is with your ebook or your submitted manuscript.

Book design is not about tricking your manuscript out with fancy trimmings, it’s about turning a good book into an effective, easy-to-use or entertaining professional product.

If you are a serious author, and want your work taken seriously, and especially if you want people to buy and keep your book, then professional book design services could make the difference between success and failure.

Colin Dunbar has more than 30 years experience in book design. He also enjoys writing non-fiction, and is the author of Invest in Yourself and How to Get What You Want.  You can check out his book design service at his website, or click on the ad below, and/or at the far right of this page.

  • Book Design Service

    Colin Dunbar's Book Design Service
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