Category Archives: Featured posts

Shades of Gray: A Somewhat Liberating Spin on Story Structure

If you’ve been challenged by the notion – or if you’re in complete denial – that effective stories can and should be broken down into sequential parts, that each of these parts has a unique contextual mission to fulfill, and that each segment is separated by a critical milestone that must accomplish certain storytelling feats… 

… if this is you, then get ready for some very good news.

Because the storytelling world isn’t really quite as black and white as I’ve made it out to be. 

If you’re a screenwriter, you’re still absolutely stuck with specific targets for the plot points in your stories.  But if you’re a novelist, you will be delighted to hear that what screenwriters must regard as a set of rules really function more like a set of principles where you’re concerned.

These principles are like traffic.  Consistently disregard them and chances are you won’t get a professional chauffer’s license.  But exceeding a few speed limits or cheating a stop sign now and then, that doesn’t mean you’ll end up in jail.  Or dead.  Or become the cause of someone else being dead.

It just means you got away with it.  Which, when it comes to writing fiction, may be perfectly fine.  This doesn’t negate the principle, it just serves your creative needs at the time.

Principles, like a moral code, still require a general sense of discipline and homage.  At least if you want to coexist in the society in which they prosper.

Or with writing, at least if you want to publish your work.

The Case of the Wandering Plot Point

Yesterday I used a five hour airplane ride to read a highly regarded thriller by a writer who lives in a neighboring zip code.  As usual, I found myself deconstructing the story as I went along, making sure the requisite plot points appear within their narrowly-defined range of locale, and that the four sequential parts did their generically-prescribed contextual job.

That’s the downside of studying story structure.  Every novel you read and every movie you see becomes a bit of a clinic.  Last time I just sat back and got lost in a story was when the Swiss Family Robinson was turning a confluence of vines into a foyer.

In my advocacy of story structure I encourage this deconstruction process as a means of understanding what the four parts of a story are intended to do, and how the milestones that separate them are the stuff of dramatic tension, pacing and character arc. 

So there I am, sitting in 24A somewhere between Honolulu and Seattle, waiting for the first plot point to appear where it should.  And waiting.  And waiting.  Past the prescribed 20th percentile.  Past the 25th.  Getting nervous as we zip through the 3oth.

The first plot point in this New York Times bestseller finally showed up on page 118 in a 356 page novel.  Do the math, that’s not supposed to happen.

Got me to thinking.  I need to take my musings on story structure a step further.

A plot point may not be what you think it is.

The definition of a first plot point is a change in the story that defines the hero’s quest and need going forward, and does so in the face of an antagonistic force that the reader suddenly understands to an extent that empathy and emotion are evoked, while creating obstacles to the hero’s quest, and thus creating stakes that depend on the hero’s ability to overcome those obstacles.

A mouthful.  Chew it carefully, because it will nourish your story.  Or kill it if you don’t swallow it all.

Because that is always what a first plot point does.

If you look closely, though, the essence of that definition is the grasping of what the plot point means, rather than what it is. 

Read that again.  It’s subtle, and it’s critical.

A husband suddenly dying of an accident may seem like a plot point, if nothing else than by the sheer magnitude of how it changes the widow’s life.  But, if the story is about how she is supposed to deal with the fact that the husband has left all the insurance money to a heretofore unknown mistress, it is the moment when that fact is revealed that becomes the plot point, rather than the death itself.

As you look for plot points in the work of others, don’t be seduced by magnitude.  Look for the narrative moment at which the story clarifies, when the hero’s quest truly begins an informed forward motion. 

When the story switches from set-up mode into reaction mode.

It’s the stakes that the first plot point creates that counts, not the size of the explosion.

A plot point may not appear precisely where it should.

I’ve said (as has Syd Field) that the first plot point should occur at a point between the 20th and 25th percentile in the story.

If you’ve perceived that to be a rule, that’s good, because it is the optimal range.  But you, the novelist, have the latitude to cheat that on either side, depending on the nature of the preceding set-up sequence (the very definition of Part 1). 

If you delay the first plot point past the 25th percentile, then you’ll need several twists and a deepening of the stakes prior to that point.  Without them the set-up will take too long and you’ll lose the reader.

If you’re Big Bang plot point comes much earlier, then make sure you put another twist – one that deepens the stakes of the story – at about the 25th percentile, making sure that it changes the course of the hero’s quest from what it was.

A plot point may be a sequence of scenes, versus a specific moment.

Sometimes the first plot point isn’t a sudden moment at all.  It can also be the consequence of a sequence of scenes or story points, all condensed around the prescribed vicinity where the plot point should occur.

Sometimes when it’s tough to nail down a plot point in a story we are reading or a movie we are seeing, it’s because several things happen that could be the plot point.  For instance, using the example from above…

The husband is seen cheating.  The husband dies.  The wife is told by the lawyer that the insurance policy doesn’t bear her name.  The mistress shows up at her house demanding the jewelry – including her wedding ring – that the dead husband has just left her in his will.

Obviously, the widow has a new quest and need, and she’s in reaction mode.  A plot point has definitely occurred.

But where?  Which moment defines the point plot? 

A plot point may occur as a sequence of scenes that occur from the 20th to 28th percentile of the story.  Each scene changes the nature of the widow’s quest, spinning the story in a new direction, but only after they’re all on the table do we fully understand what it means.

So which scene is the plot point itself?

Answer: it doesn’t matter.  At least not for the reader when the sequence is regarded as a whole.  The writer knows – my money is on the lawyer’s revelation that the mistress is the beneficiary – but post-execution it is the effect of the scenes, rather than the mission, that counts.

Relax.  Tell your story. 

But do so from within the context of understanding how and where story structure comes into play.  This will keep you safe and keep the story moving forward.

Just like a musician can’t go off riffing a solo until they understand the underlying melody.  Just like an athlete can’t successfully freelance a play until they understand where the rest of the team will be on the field. 

Don’t sweat the percentages.  Sweat the stakes, the dramatic tension and reader empathy.  If you’re simply in the neighborhood, story architecture will protect you.

But if you disregard its principles, be aware that this is a tough neighborhood, indeed.  Once lost, you may never be found.

At least, your story won’t be found in a bookstore, that is.




Filed under Featured posts, Story Structure Series

Story Structure: A Kinder, Gentler First Plot Point

Pop quiz: what’s the most important moment in your story?

When we first meet our dashing hero?  Nope.  

That sky-is-falling plot twist in the middle when all hope is lost?  Nope.

When everything comes together, that visceral oh-my-god resolution just before the credits roll, with tears flowing, hormones raging and adrenalin pumping like beer at a sausage festival?

Nope again.  

The following could change your writing life forever.

The most important moment in your story is when everything changes for the hero.  When what the hero believes is her reality experiences a sudden shift.  Suddenly there’s a new deal on the table that sends your hero down an altered, unexpected path.  And, as part of that new deal, the reader gets a sense of what stands in the hero’s way.

That moment changes your story.  And in doing so, it could be argued that this is when your story really begins.  Everything that happened prior to it was just a set-up.

It’s called the First Plot Point.  And you can’t mess with it.

For many writers this is the single most illuminating piece of writing wisdom they’ll ever hear.  Because you can’t write an effective story until you accept and understand this at the very core of your gonna-be-a-huge-bestselling-superstar self.

In the story of your writing life, your First Plot Point may be right here.   Right now, as you read this.  Because if you haven’t wrapped your head around this principle, chances are you’ll never sell a story.  But when you do, you’ll have immersed yourself into the realm of story architecture, and that may be precisely the thing that gets you published.

A sudden shift.  A new deal on the table.  A new path for you.

And the only thing that stands in your way is your willingness to engage and understand.

Timing isn’t optional.

Here’s shocking news for psychotically organic storytellers: you don’t get to say when that happens.  There’s a narrow little window of expectation as defined by accepted story structure principles – the First Plot Point needs to happen at about the 20th to 25th percentile of the story.  Right after you’ve set it all up.


Too early and you’ve shortchanged your opportunity to do that.  The more invested the reader is in the characters, especially the hero, the more the stakes of the story have been made relevant to those characters, then the more emotional vicarious empathy the reader will experience when that MMM (Most Important Moment) arrives. 

That emotional investment is the single, most critical variable that makes your story work.  Or not.

This requires ample set-up time.  In fact, that’s precisely the mission of everything that happens in your story prior to the First Plot Point.  If, in the definition of an effective First Plot Point, we need to shift the hero’s journey going forward, then we need to have introduced and defined – to have set-up – the stakes of that journey beforehand. 

You have about 60 to 80 pages to make that happen.  If something huge takes place earlier – and it certainly can – you’re still obliged to deliver an effective First Plot Point at the proper moment.  Something needs to happen, and in the proper place, that creates a shift that defines a new hero’s quest.

If you raise the curtain on that moment too late, your story suffers serious pacing problems.  It’ll lack a reason to be.  You risk losing your reader, which in the case of an agent or editor means putting the manuscript in the return mail.

Blatancy is optional. 

Usually, in defining the First Plot Point, I cite an example that’s as much in-your-face as it is true-to-life.   But not every story likes it rough.  You don’t have to smack into an iceberg or receive a blackmail threat or get a terminal diagnosis to have an effective First Plot Point.

Sometimes your hero’s world is rocked with a whisper.  A few unexpected words, a meaningful glance, the seemingly random passing of two souls on a street.

Sometimes less is more. 

The moment when everything changes.

Allow me to illustrate with a true story from my youth.  I thought I was in love.  Her name was Tina.  We’d been dating about a month, and things were ramping up on all levels.  I met her friends.  She met mine.  We shared our dreams.  We liked the same things.  Sexual chemistry ensued.

It was the first act of our emerging love affair.  And then everything changed.  Subtly.  Seemingly without significance.  But it completely altered my Tina journey.

We were walking in a park.  Hand in hand, the whole sappy visual.  I made some reference to the future, assumptively so.  I saw her expression shift, her eyes grow distant.

And she said, “If I’m around, that is.”  And she wasn’t kidding.

From that point forward, everything changed.  My quest had a different context, a new goal.  I had an obstacle to overcome, and it was my own inner demons that stood in my way.

Tina was gone a month later.

Life is a story sometimes.  And even then, it has story architecture.

In the current movie 500 Days of Summer – which, by the way, is a sparkling example of storytelling creativity, one that adheres to the contours of story architecture in subtle and illuminating ways – the First Plot Point unfolds in almost exactly the same way, with nearly identical words, at precisely the proper point.  Check it out, you’ll see.

And if you haven’t yet comprehended the nature and effect of a killer first plot point, you will.  Without an iceberg in sight.

As for me, my love story concludes blissfully, though it took years to write that ending. 

Her name is Laura.

We’re working on the sequel as we speak, and it’s a thriller.


CLICK HERE for a feature article about the Storyfixer on a prominent writing site, which also has a review of the new ebook, 101 Slightly Unpredictable Tips for Novelists and Screenwriters.


Filed under Featured posts, Write better (tips and techniques)