Category Archives: The Hunger Games series

Hunger Games (9) – The Entire Story in Nine Sentences

Or… YOUR Story in Nine Critical Sentences

The best way to teach a technique is to show it working relative to something you already understand. 

What better way, then, than to introduce you to an immensely powerful story development tool – I hesitate to call it a trick, though it feels like magic when you use it – than to apply this little ditty to The Hunger Games.

Any story – the whole story – can be reduced to 9 sentences.

It can be reduced to one, actually, but 9 can tell the whole story with structural resolution, albeit at a 10,000 foot level.  Go ahead, try it on your story at any stage, or apply this to your favorite novels… it’ll test your knowledge of story architecture, while pointing you toward it… which is the whole point.

This is something you can use when developing a story, or when finishing one.  It’s an acid test, of sorts… if you struggle with it, then you’re just possibly in trouble with the story itself.

The goal isn’t to finish, the goal is to optimize.  To make your story the very best it can be within the context and confines of your driving concept.

These 9 sentences aren’t the first step in story development, by the way.  Or shouldn’t be.  The first step is the identification of an idea.  Then the goal becomes to expand the idea into a concept, and then you lay it out over these specific 9 sentences, each of which is assigned a mission.

When you do that, you’ve just structured your entire novel.

The number 9 isn’t arbitrary here.

Solid stories have five major milestones, and they unfold in four parts.  Do the math… that’s nine things – specific turns and essences – that need to be identified, and then broken down into individual scene treatments. 

The real value comes when these nine sentences expand into more sentences, ultimately with each sentence describing a scene in your story.  At that point, congratulations, you’ve just written an entire outline.

Here’s The Hunger Games in 9 Sentences.

Pay attention to the labels that identify the 4 parts, and the 5 milestones.  This is important because they need to be in a specific order and target specific content… and they all need to be covered.  Here goes:


  1. The HOOK is when, after meeting Katniss and her family in the first chapter, we see her sister Prim selected as a Tribute in the District 12 Reaping ceremony, and then Katniss (our hero) steps up to volunteer to take her place in the games.


  1. The Set-up continues (PART 1 of the story, or about the first 20% of the total length) with scenes that simultaneously show us the life Katniss had been living, including her skills in the forest, and the process of saying goodbye and then traveling to the Capital city, where their (she and the other District 12 Tribute, Peeta) preparation and training begin under the guidance of assigned mentors and caretakers.


  1. The story changes (kicks into a higher gear) at the FIRST PLOT POINT when Katniss, after being unsure about a strategy that pairs her romantically with Peeta, appears to accept this strategic union, thus uniting them as partners in the Games and spinning the sub-textual story arc of their relationship, which becomes the source of hope.


  1. In the PART 2  scenes (our hero’s response to this newly defined quest/journey), we see Katniss finish her final preparations with a flourish and then enter the Games as they open, with her surviving a near-miss attack before fleeing into the woods, eluding others and searching for shelter and water, and the dark discovery that Peeta has joined a pack that is targeting her.


  1. The MID-POINT changes Katniss from a wandering potential victim into a warrior when she attacks the Tributes waiting to kill her as they wait below the tree in which she had sought refuge, with Rue (another Tribute) tipping her off to a hive of killer wasps, which she drops on them, thus beginning her alliance with this lovable and clever Tribute.


  1. The PART 3 scenes, with Katniss now partnered with Rue after recovering from wasp stings and what seem to be hallucinations of Peeta actually helping her to escape, we see her tend to her injuries while hatching a plan to attack the food and supplies of the dominant surviving pack of Tribute (which includes Peeta), and which succeeds but ends up with Rue dead and Katniss once more alone.


  1. The SECOND PLOT POINT reunites a badly injured Peeta with Katniss, where their reconciled relationship returns to what is now a seemingly genuine romantic affection that is also their best shot at survival, and as such, sets up the ending sequence.


  1. The PART 4 scenes show them finding shelter where Peeta can safely heal, with Katniss leaving him behind to go to a Gameskeeper-arranged gifting, where she is nearly killed before being saved by Rue’s District co-Tribute (acting in gratitude for her kindness to Rue), and then, when it is announced that the rules will change to permit two surviving Tributes from the same district to win the games, they must escape the release of killer mutt creations that chase them onto the Cornucopia itself for a final showdown.


  1. The story ends when, after Katniss and Peeta survive the mutts and then a final confrontation with the lone and most sinister surviving Tribute (Cato), they are pronounced winners of the 74th Annual Hunger Games, and are taken back to the city for recovery and celebration, which takes a dark turn when their mentor warns that the President is not happy that their near death pact/bluff has humiliated the Capital and tarnished the Games, and that they are not yet out of danger (thus setting up the sequels).


Okay, they’re big Faulkneresque sentences, contrived to cover ground (especially when working backwards from a completed story). 

But they begin as short sentences, sometimes bullets (the beginning of a beat sheet), that become placeholders until the writer better understands what, specifically, will happen there.

This is a tool that can unblock you. 

It can be the primary spine of your story development.  It works because it forces you to consider the major moving parts of your story, and opens the door to the creation of specific scenes within the parts that you’ve just identified.

My advice: work on this – these nine sentences – as a means of fleshing out your story before you write.  If you can’t create that way (thousands tell me they can’t, so you must be out there), then use this to keep your organic scene sequence on track with the optimal generic architecture of the story.

Can you reduce your story to nine sentences that cover the five major story milestones (hook, FPP, Mid-Point, 2PP, ending) and four parts (setup, response, attack, resolution)? 

Try it.  You’ll be amazed, if not with what you have, then with the clarity of what you don’t yet have (or perhaps have in the wrong place), which is just as valuable.

Here are the nine sentences you are going for:


  1. Hook
  2. Part 1 exposition (set-up)
  3. First Plot Point
  4. Part 2 exposition (response, journey begins)
  5. Mid-Point
  6. Part 3 exposition (hero now becomes proactive)
  7. Second Plot Point
  8. Part 4 exposition (hero becomes catalyst for…)
  9. Ending/resoluiton

Stir in character arc and context, thematic sub-text and specific scenes that flesh out these sentences, and you’re in business. 

Ask Suzanne Collins, she’ll certainly agree… business is good for The Hunger Games.


Webinar, anyone?

Give me 90 minutes and I can change your entire approach to writing great stories by kicking it into a higher, more focused and enlightened approach, no matter what your process is now.


Writers Digest University is hosting me this Thursday, June 7, at 1:00 Eastern/US (webinar will be archived for later user access if you have a day job and can’t attend) for an online Webinar that will allow you to clearly see your story through a lens that introduces concepts such as applying underlying story physics and how to optimize them through the application of six essential core competencies… just like the pros do it.

Learn more, and register, HERE.



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Hunger Games (8) — On Milestones and Meanings

In life, even in art, there are certain laws — principles, rules, fundamental truths — that govern.  That dictate motion, direction… effectiveness… success or failure. 

So called “conventional wisdom” is hit or miss, it may not belong on that list of eternal, universal truth.  In fact, I can name a a fistfull of “conventional wisdoms” that will make your writing life tougher and your stories more vanilla.

There may indeed be no rules in this game, as many like to claim (semantics, that).  But there are always physics and natural law in the mix.  If you want to jump off Niagra Falls in the name of art, prepare to go splat on a rock.  That’s just those impartial physics kicking in, the cause-and-reaction manifestation of ignorance.

These universal dramatic physics will make you… or they will break you.  And they totally made THG into what many consider to be a modern classic.

With storytelling, there is a vital roster of these principles and forces .  Some are simply properties, what I like to call “story physics” (the forces that render a story powerful).  Others are modes of access (to the forces) and application (of the forces), which I call the six core competencies of successful storytelling.

To attempt to write a story without at least a working awareness of these things is, at best, daunting.  To make it successful with years of rewriting… nearly impossible.

I wrote a book about the latter (“Story Engineering“)… and am writing a another about the former (“The Search for Story,” out in early 2013 from Writers Digest Books).

These literary forces are always there, even when the author is unaware of their essential essence, even when the author refuses to recognize them as the very things they are attempting to leverage and optimize on the page.

The Hunger Games is a clinic in how these two realms of story — story physics, and story construction and execution — merge to determine if and how,the story ends up as something that is deemed compelling, or the degree to which it works.

In THG, 30 million buyers are in agreement: it works.  Really really well.

Here’s why: the major story milestones in this story all nail the highest level of purpose and definition of each story milestone.  As well as all four contextual parts that are compellingly aligned with the target definition of their purpose at that point in a story. 

In other words, THG is by the book when it comes to story architecture, which means it optimizes the power of story physics that result from applying these principles.

The effectiveness of a story is never random.  

When it works it can be explained, just as it can be explained when it doesn’t.  The only randomness in this equation occurs when the author doesn’t know what they’re doing… then its a crap shoot.

Some authors don’t want to hear this.

They reject anything that smacks of structural labeling, modeling or paradigm-aligning expecation, or attempts to define what they need to be writing, or are planning to write, at a prescribed point in their story sequence.

Fair enough, call this what you will.  And then take your chances with what you know. 

But gravity is gravity.  The earth only spins in one direction, no matter what you want to call it.  If you want to play a game in which gravity plays a role, you don’t have to believe in gravity or even think about, to make your game effective… but you do have to factor it in.  

Just as universally… for art to work at a commercial level (which is precisely what we’re talking about here), it must touch someone besides the artist.  No matter what you call the means by which that happens.  The means, in this case, are the manner in which the writer has harnessed the power of story physics.

In a tasty little serving of irony, even those writers who decry this approach as formulaic, who claim there are no “rules” are indeed subordinated to these very principles, and when they write a story that works, they are absolutely aligning with them.  However, and whenever, they get there.

The folks backing Columbus swore the earth was flat.  Who knows, ol’ Chris himself may have believed that to be true.  But at the end of the day — no matter what Columbus believed about navigational physics, or how Suzanne Collins feels about story structure and its working parts — they both eventually reached a destination that worked.

Without falling off a cosmic cliff.  Because the physics that defined their journey are what they are.

Story milestones are there for a reason.

When you accept that, you can then forget about what they’re called, because it is those functional reasons that dictate what you must execute and ellicit in your story, and where.  The milestones are guidelines, literary lighthouses, to get you there in an optimal way.

What are they?

The five major elements of story physics are: conceptual power (the compelling essence of the Big Idea)… dramatic tension (conflict)… pacing… hero empathy (resulting in our rooting for something)… and vicarious experience (often a function of setting and concept, as is the case in THG).  Those last two combine to become at catch-all that speaks to the need for the reader to be emotionally involved.

The major story milestones are there to help us make these things happen in our stories.

Read that again… it’s a make-it-or-break-it invitation to become an enlightened writer.

Each story milestone has a mission to fulfill, a definition to live up to, and a functional purpose in your story.  They aren’t there simply to signal a transition, there’s a deeper purpose attached.  When you ignore them, or fail to understand them, you do so at the risk of your story’s optimal power and effectiveness.

You don’t have to have names for them.  But you do need, eventually, to align these truths.  If you writea a story with weak tension, no pace, nobody to root for and nothing for the reader to discover, not matter who majestically you put your sentences together… the story will tank.

I have no idea if Ms. Collin’s is aware of any of these labels.  But having read all three books, I guarantee that she understands them — even if only instinctually — because they’re all there, bolding evident in the pages of THG.

And that’s precisely why these stories work.

It ain’t her killer prose, folks.  Which is fine, by the way… but something less than killer.  It’s her command of the forces that elevate a story to greatness.

Her First Plot Point — when Katniss “accepts” her role as Peeta’s romantic partner in the Games — changes the story into more than a thriller unfolding on a cool conceptual landscape… it turns it into a love story.  It moves the story from “set-up” mode into “response” mode, as Katniss goes forward within this more compelling context.  And meanwhile, the reader is far more emotionally empathetic to the surface dangers in view of these larger stakes.

If you doubt this, look at the ending of the story (both book and film): it’s all about their perceived love for each other.  That is the catalyst that not only moves the story along (in parallel with the thriller storyline), but for the denouement, as well.  Without their love, the ending would have simply been a kill-or-be-killed violent confrontation.

The Mid-Point is when Katniss evolves from her Part 2 wanderer/responder mode (fleeing through the woods, attacking nothing other than her own need for immediate safety), into the Part 3 attack mode.  The moment she starts to saw that branch supporting the tracker-jacker hive (killer wasps) to drop on her pursuers, the story — and Katniss — is different. 

Renewed.  Jacked.  Deeper.  Faster.  More compelling.

The context has evolved, gripping us even more.  That’s the power of structure that is in alignment with story physics.

What, one might legitimately ask, does this have to do with the love story?

Everything.  Because Peeta is part of the pack that is pursing her.  She must survive, and  so must he, for this love story to continue.  And if she doesn’t drop that hive on them, she doesn’t survive.

The Second Plot Point is when Katniss reconnects with the injured Peeta, and they become united in their mutual survival.  Real feelings emerge from this web of strategic facade, complexity ensues, and once again it is the context of a love story that drives the exposition forward.

The ending?  That’s easy… it’s all about their relationship, their love.  They defy the Gameskeeper and the Games themselves by choosing love over survival.  Which is at the heart of the theme of this story (one of the Six Core Competencies). 

 That ending delivers on what Collins has successfully caused the reader to feel — to flip the Capital and its sadistic people the proverbial finger of defiance.  It satisfies… the main criteria for an ending to a story… precisely because of the story physics that underpin it.

Think about how these moments harness the power — the physics — of storytelling.

Without the love story, all we have is an extended chase story, with little at stake except survival.  That could work, but it works better — it is optimized — when the story becomes about love, about defiance and self, over and above survival.  When it becomes thematic.  The reader is emotionally connected… we root harder, we empathize more, because this is a stronger concept.

If the FPP doesn’t happen, then you don’t have this love story, and you have no expositional pace (one of the five basic elements of story physics).  If it happens too soon, we aren’t as emotionally invested, because the set-up has been short-changed.  If it happens later than the optimal 20 to 25 percentile mark (something an uninformed or defiant writer might try), then we’ve already began to settle into a lighter, less resonant story.  One that wouldn’t have experienced the success what ended up on the shelves and on the screen.

Without this angle and its placement at the FPP,  what we have is just another episode of Lost.

The placement of the Mid-Point moment uses the same justification.  

If Katniss remains a fleeing potential victim for too long, we don’t feel as strongly, we have less and less to root for.  Less hope.  If it happens too soon, then we aren’t as fully aware of and empathetic to the danger and the pain of her situation.

The HG Mid-Point optimizes these story physics.  It’s placement isn’t random, and it isn’t a rule… it’s just optimal.

Same with the Second Plot Point.  It changes the story into what it was all along… a love story.  A love that defines their chances of survival.  Defines and strengthens stakes.  Once again, story physics are at the heart of it… if placed earlier or later, this SPP moment wouldn’t work as well.

All of these principles and tools await us.  Every time, every story.

It is up to us to recognize them, and once understood, to harness them.  To harness that which you do not understand… is luck, is imprecise, even if it is driven by solid instinct.  Better to know what you’re doing.

Just as in life itself… some people get it, some never do… and some of those still trip over good fortune.  Either way, we get to choose.  To not choose, to just keep writing blindly and organically, to rely strictly on an uniformed instinct, places the outcome entirely in the hands of your subconscious, where you are rolling the dice with your career.

Once chosen, the knowledge and learning is out there, right at our fingertips.  Once recognized, you’ll see these story physics exerting force within each and every successful story you read, or see on a screen.

No exceptions.

Are you in, or are you rolling dice?

The Hunger Games shows it all to us, clearly, effectively and, if you look for it, with the empowerment that comes from getting it.


Webinar, anyone?

On Thursday, June 7, I’ll be presenting a 90-minute Webinar through Writers Digest University.  The title is: THE ELEMENTS OF STORY: TRANSFORMING YOUR NOVEL FROM GOOD TO GREAT.

Prepare to hear what you’ve never heard before, at least in this empowering context… just possibly a milestone in your writing career.

Click HERE to register.



Filed under The Hunger Games series