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Let’s Talk About Dialogue

A guest post by Art Holcomb.


Here is a truth about human beings . . .

Before there was writing, there was talking.

Dialogue is the most trusted and most human aspect of story. Sure, we love the action and the conflict, but what we seek in a story in order to make it real for us is what the characters actually say to each other. We often skip to that part in a novel because we find it the most relate-able part of any story. It’s what we most naturally connect with.

Dialogue is the vital part of every narrative.

Without it, all you have is description.

As a writing instructor, I spend an extensive amount of time going over the dialogue in my students’ work. . . . Because dialogue IS tough.

Common questions are:

• “How do I make it sound less like writing and more like talking?”
• “How do I decide what needs to be said and when?”
• “How do I manage the subtext?”
• “Is dialogue where I put in all the exposition?”

What’s important to note is that these are all issues which plague writers at every level. Getting the dialogue just right is the difference between a story that grips the reader and one that gives them a reason to lose interest and slip away.

But exactly what is dialogue’s role?

Let’s start with what I think is the single most important tool you can have on the subject:

The Purpose of Dialogue is not to TELL the story.

Because dialogue is really the vehicle for character, theme, mood, plot conflict, mystery, and tension.

Instead of using dialogue to try to spin your tale, we talk about dialogue as the way to:

Deliver the character: We learn more about a character by what they say and how they say it than anything other than their ACTIONS. Dialogue fills in the sketch of whom these people are and why we should care about them in the first place. Perhaps the most important decision a writer makes is not just what the individual characters say, but also when they say it and whether they should say it at all.

Entertain: Think about the last book you read or movie you watched. I know I often skip past to the dialogue when I find myself losing interest in the writing. I think I intuitively think that dialogue offers me the best chance to RECONNECT with the story.

Dialogue is how we hear the humor and the angst, the way we access the emotions, the way we gauge tension, and understand the level of conflict at any point. All these things add to our enjoyment of the story. Dialogue is the equal partner to action; it is the way we fill in the blanks about the characters we long to understand and bond with.

Point to subtext: Dialogue hints and insinuates. It informs and enlightens. It persuades and sways. It whispers its little secrets to our willing ears. And it confirms or denies our judgments about what we’re reading in a more powerful way than action ever could.

Create anticipation: Dialogue is one way the audience is made to “work for their supper”. No story wants to give the reader everything. Mysteries, clues and innuendos are so often first offered through dialogue. And that keeps the audience guessing about what’s coming next.

And if they’re engaged, they’ll keep reading.

So, I have my students keep in mind the following:

1. Each bit of dialogue must have a mission and a goal within the scene. If it’s not doing one of the four points above, CUT IT!

2. Less is truly more. You need to learn how to make your words powerful. Choose just the right word at just the right moment and you’ve made that important character/audience connection that will keep your fans coming back time and time again.

3. Dialogue should seem easy and natural, but that’s not the same as simple. It takes much more workmanship and craft to write a short, potent passage than a long one. If more writers understood this, we’d probably have less mediocre trilogies and more powerful individual novels.

4. Always make it accessible: write “said” and “asked” most of the time, instead of using hissed, begged, stammered and the like, and use the accompanying action to reinforce your meaning. It will make a much greater impact.

5. Dialogue often controls the pace of the story. Just as shorter narrative sentences produce a sense of urgency, short dialogue moves the story along. Short dialogue also increases the tension in the same way that mystery and suspense can be produce by drawing out the conversation – it’s another way of making the audience work for the experience. Dialogue can be your story’s gas and brakes – use them to your best advantage.

6. Exposition is like cinnamon. In small amounts, cinnamon is a delightful little spice. But did you know that, in large doses, cinnamon is a deadly poison! Treat exposition in the same way. Don’t let one character carry the exposition ball. Toss it around and let it be truly conversational. Your characters should never be eager to give their precious information away in one speech. Remember: a little can go a long way.

7. “On-the-nose dialogue – where the character says exactly what he feels and exactly what he wants – is the antitheses of subtext and can ruin a story. Meaning should always exist just beneath the surface. Each time one of your characters speaks, there are always these twin questions:

• What did s/he mean to say?
• What did s/he really mean?

8. Good dialogue is almost always more about what’s not being said than what is. And the best use of character is revealed in what the character DOESN’T WANT TO SAY versus what he is willing to reveal – what vital tidbit is s/he keeping from us? Remember: what the reader really wants to know is EXACTLY what the character doesn’t want to discuss.

9. Character is also exposed to the reader by the manner in which one character talks to another. The relationship and the depth of characters should always be at stake within these individual exchanges.

10. You can always learn a great deal about the character being spoken to by the way s/he is being addressed by others. It tells you what the speaker thinks of the other person, and that informs you about their relationship.

11. Each line of dialogue contains the voice and personality of the speaker, just as in real life. The way the character speaks should give the reader some of the information that they crave on that vital subconscious level.

12. Make your characters carry the theme – since theme is always important to them in one way or another. Often, the writer doesn’t really understand the theme of his/her own work in the first or even subsequent drafts. When you’re lost about theme, go back and see what arguments your characters are making. Are they advocating for something, challenging a stance or just espousing a position outright? Each story is really an argument of a sort, and the different characters often represent different aspects of that argument. Let them talk– and learn from them.

13. While dialogue itself is not action, the act of speaking is. And all characters are undertaking some kind of action while they’re speaking. They’re kicking the dog, sharpening a knife, pointing a sword, looking shiftily at the floor or staring deep into the other character’s eyes! Use that to inform, punctuate, re-enforce or even deny the truth of what’s being said;

14. Remember: Each character, in his or her own way, demands to be heard – and everything in their voice contributes something to the story!

15. As the prolific writer and teacher Chuck Wendig reminds us, Story has its own secret laws. One of them is that dialogue needs to be authentic but not necessarily real. Dialogue must sound real – genuine, and convincing – but is never the same as the way that people actually talk – with their long pauses, hems and haws and “you know what I mean” phrasing.

16. Regardless of whether you are a novelist, short story writer or a screenwriter, every work you create is essentially a conversation that YOU are having with one person – the reader! Write like you’re talking directly and honestly to that other person and your writing will never sound like . . . well, like writing.

17. Most important, know where to end it. Dialogue has a beginning, middle and end. Learn to know which is which.

I’ll be teaching more on dialogue as well as giving the Keynote Address at the Greater Los Angeles Writer’s Society Conference in Los Angeles on June 26-28, 2015.

Go HERE for more information.


Filed under Guest Bloggers

You Can Master Classic Story Structure… A Guest Post by Jerry B. Jenkins

Yes, THAT Jerry B. Jenkins. Author of 21 NY Times bestsellers. Over 70 million copies sold. Co-Author of the iconic Left Behind series.

This is as high on the A-list as it gets.

When a guy like Jerry B. Jenkins talks, we should sit up straight and listen. Take notes.  Memorize. 

This post was written by Jerry exclusively for Storyfix because we share a key writing value: the importance and nature of story structure. 


A guest post by Jerry B. Jenkins

Whether they’re wannabes, newbies, or veterans, whether they’re outliners or pantsers (writing by the seat of their pants—putting interesting people in difficult situations and writing to find out what happens, as Stephen King puts it), most tend to ask the same question wherever I speak on fiction writing:

Is there a formula, a structure, for fiction writing?

You’ll be happy to know there is, and that though it has the word classic in it, it’s not all that complicated and can be easily mastered. That won’t in itself make you a better writer, but it can sure make your job easier and more fun.

For sure, you ignore it at your peril.

I discovered it decades ago in How to Write Bestselling Fiction by Dean Koontz, and at the risk of hyperbole, it changed my life. I wanted to write bestselling fiction, so what better book, right? (Unfortunately, the book is out of print and has not been reprinted, so only rare, very expensive copies still exist.)

Fast-forward to the present and I have written more than 185 books, over two-thirds of those novels, have seen 21 of my titles reach The New York Times bestseller list, and have sold 70 million copies.

You don’t need any more evidence that Koontz’s formula works.

With full credit to him, it goes like this:

1. Plunge your main character into terrible trouble as soon as possible.

2. Everything he does to make things better makes them worse.

3. Make sure the last worst thing looks insurmountable.

4. Then your hero succeeds by taking action, based on what he has learned about himself in the midst of all the challenges.

Notes on the Points Above

1. “Terrible trouble” means something different for every genre. For a pot-boiling detective thriller, your hero might have a gun to his head or a contract out on his life. For a British cozy, your heroine might find herself falling in love with a suitor so far beneath her station that she might lose her place within her family. Whatever terrible trouble you choose, be sure it appears overwhelming to your lead character from page one. And remember that readers won’t engage just because of the trouble unless they are made to care about the characters.

2. These self-generated complications must make sense. If your hero’s terrible trouble is that she is being pursued by an attacker, it makes sense that she might smack into someone on the street or even get hit by a car. It stretches credibility for her to run into an old flame, however.

3. Don’t shortchange your reader on the final, worst complication. Even you should be wondering as you’re writing that scene how you’re going to get your character out of it. The more you invest in the all-is-lost scene, the better the payoff when your character triumphs in the end.

4. One coincidence is plenty for a 400- to 500-page manuscript, and maybe even one is too many. So avoid them for pivotal scenes like number 2 above and certainly for the grand finale. You also want to avoid the dreaded deus ex machina, where God saves the day.

As a person of faith, I happen to believe God answers prayer and still acts in supernatural ways sometimes, but that’s the stuff for nonfiction books. In a novel, we want to see character arc, the hero growing from point A to point B, using what he’s learned from his trials and taking action to get himself out of trouble.

One of my students years ago interrupted my class on this subject and announced, “You just described the formula for I Love Lucy!”

I couldn’t argue. Every week, Lucy got herself into some crazy predicament, and everything she did to try to fix it made it worse until things looked so hopeless that she had “some ‘splainin’ to do” to Ricky. And then she figured it and took action, roll credits.

So Dean Koontz’s classic story structure worked even for 50s TV sitcoms.

The Most Common Error?

Failing to plunge your main character into terrible trouble as soon as possible.


Get that character on stage, make me care, and plunge.

Jerry B. Jenkins shares advanced writing tips with aspiring authors at He is a 21-Time New York Times bestselling novelist (The Left Behind series) and biographer (Hank Aaron, Walter Payton, Billy Graham, and many others) with sales of over 70 million copies. Click HERE to discover his five most crucial tips for anyone who wants to write a book—free.


Filed under Guest Bloggers